Listening refers to a complex cognitive process that allows a person to understand spoken language. Listening encompasses receptive, constructive, and interpretive aspects of cognition, which are utilized in both first language (L1) and second language (L2) listening. In L1 acquisition for children, listening ability and cognition develop interdependently; as such, in normal hearing persons, listening as a specific skill is rarely given direct attention in L1 education. In L2 development, more direct intervention is considered necessary, because in most cases the learner is acquiring a second language after cognitive processing skills and habits in the L1 have been established. In L2 development, listening constitutes not only a skill area in performance, but also a primary means of acquiring a second language.