There are a large number of variables in teaching listening.  The goal of the language teacher is not to memorize or try out all of the variables, but rather to be mindful of the choices we’re making in our teaching for each of these variables. 

3 Listening “Domains” 

12 Input “Genres”

6  Intervention “Points” 

15 Listening “Skills”

21 Listening “Strategies” 

5 Proficiency “Bands”

10 Types of “Feedback” 

25 Testing “Prompts”

40 Practice “Tasks” 

There is a well-known principle of psychology called “habit formation”: every time we perform one action, we increase the likelihood that we will do it again.  So the more we repeat the same choices when we teach, the more likely we are to keep repeating them – and the less likely we are to even notice that we nearly always have options of other actions. “Mindfulness” is the decision to make a pause before we execute an action and consider alternatives.

About The Author

, Variables in Teaching Listening, Lateral Communications
Michael Rost, principal author of Pearson English Interactive, has been active in the areas of language teaching, learning technology and language acquisition research for over 25 years. His interest in bilingualism and language education began in the Peace Corps in West Africa and was fuelled during his 10 years as an educator in Japan and extensive touring as a lecturer in East Asia and Latin America. Formerly on the faculty of the TESOL programs at Temple University and the University of California, Berkeley, Michael now works as an independent researcher, author, and speaker based in San Francisco.