Design Successful Learning

CONCEPT

, Input sources, Lateral Communications

One broad definition of listening is:  

Constructing meaning through conscious attention to a source.

The source doesn’t actually have to come through the ears, or only through the ears, but generally there is an audio component to listening. 

Key terms are:

Constructing = the listener is the one who creates the meaning (not the input source)

Conscious = the listener sets an intention and exerts a conscious effort to arrive at meaning

Attention = the listener is making decisions about how to process the input

Source = what is available for the the listener to attend to

So when teaching listening you obviously need to select the sources you will use.  

holophrases

lists

announcements

news broadcasts

documentaries 

interviews 

dialogues

jokes

riddles

internal monologues

oral exams

office visits

consultations

sales calls 

oral presentations

songs

hymns

poems

prayers

chants

sermons

plays

stories 

anecdotes

children’s stories 

directions

demonstrations

debates

stand up comedy acts 

acting exercises 

religious sermons

rituals 

small talk (situational chat)

meetings

colloquiums 

seances

dreams

guided visualizations

audiobooks 

lectures (academic)

talks (e.g. TED talks)

social conversations

transactional conversations

TV programs

advertisements 
News broadcasts

Movies

…And all of these can be “authentic” (naturally occurring between fluent speakers) or “pedagogic” (altered to make them accessible to learners)

, Input sources, Lateral Communications

… And all of these can be presented in different media – live, audio only, video, audio-video, audio + text or graphics, video + text 

   Staging the input

, Input sources, Lateral Communications

input will always be “manipulated” or “staged” in some way:

• selected by instructor to feature certain themes

• prepared by instructor to highlight various instructional targets (like vocabulary items or functions or grammar items)

• accompanied with text or visual imagery

• chunked into “digestible” bits

• paused at various points

• played or performed at variable speeds

• repeated in whole or in part

, Input sources, Lateral Communications

PERSONALIZE IT: 

•  What is the “optimal input” for your students?  Why do you think so? 

• Select 5 of these sources that you think are suitable for your students.

• For each source, identify at least one accessible resource that you can use right away. 

Share your responses.  Offer support and suggestions to your partner.