Commentary:   This book represents an outline of virtually everything I have learned about listening in language learning over the course of my career. I believe it is worthwhile to survey the entire contents overview to get a general map of the area and then diving into any areas that are of particular interest.

 

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Contents

 

SECTION I

Defining Listening                                                                            5

1    Neurological Processing                                                                 7

  • Introduction: Listening as a Coordination of Networks 7
  • Reception: The Role of Hearing 8
  • Transmission: The Role of the Inner Ear 10
  • Coordination: The Role of the Auditory Cortex 11
  • Orientation: The Role of Attention 12
  • Agency: The Role of Consciousness 14
  • Comprehension: The Role of Language Processing 15
  • Connectivity: The Role of Memory 17
  • Interpretation: The Role of Inferencing and Reasoning 19
  • Complexity: The Role of Individual Differences 22
  • Summary: The Value of Understanding the Neurological Basis of Listening 24

References 25

 

2    Linguistic Processing                                                                  29

  • Introduction: Listening as Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processing 29
  • The Interdependence of Production and Perception 30

 

  • Phonological Processing: Integrating the Acoustic Dimensions of Speech 31
    • Phonological Processing: Psychoacoustic Effects in Perception 33
  • Morphological Processing: Recognizing Words 35
    • Recognizing Allophonic Variations of Words 39
    • Assimilation of Consonant Clusters 40
    • Vowel Centering and Reduction 40
  • Syntactic Processing: Parsing Speech 41
    • Deriving an Argument Structure 42
    • Sources of Knowledge for Syntactic Parsing 44
    • Creating Propositional Representations 45
  • Integrating Multimodal Cues into Linguistic Processing 46
  • Summary: Merging Bottom-Up Cues with Top-Down Knowledge 48

References 50

3    Semantic Processing                                                                    55

  • Introduction: Top-Down Processing as the Driver of Comprehension 55
  • Comprehension Building through Lexical Access 56
  • Comprehension Building through Schema Activation 59
    • Comprehension Building: The Process of Schema Modification 60
  • Comprehension Building: Using Heuristic Strategies 62
  • Interpreting Meaning: Inferencing 63
    • Explicit Implicit Inferencing 65
    • Compensatory Strategies in Semantic Processing 67
  • Listening to Learn 69
  • Summary: The Role of Semantic Processing in Language Comprehension 71

References 72

 

4    Pragmatic Processing                                                                  78

  • Introduction: Pragmatic Processing and Pragmatic Comprehension 78
  • Discourse Framing 79
    • Contextual Framing 79
    • Participation Framing 81
    • Power Framing 81
    • Community Framing 84
    • Subjective Framing 86

 

  • Interpreting Intent 88
    • Deciphering Locutionary and Illocutionary Acts 88
    • Conversational Maxims 89
    • Contravening Social Conventions 91
    • Emotional Signaling 92
  • Response Weighting 93
    • Responding 94
    • Providing Additive Responses 96
  • Summary: Pragmatic Comprehension and Pragmatic Competence 98

References 100

5    AI Processing                                                                            108

  • Introduction: AI (Artificial Intelligence) and BI (Biological Intelligence) Comparisons 108
  • Neurological Processing: Neural Networks 109
    • Linguistic Processing: Automatic Speech Recognition

(ASR) 110

  • Semantic Processing: Natural Language Understanding

(NLU) 110

  • Pragmatic Processing: Natural Language Generation

(NLG) 111

  • Goals of AI Processing 111
  • Neurological Processing 114
  • Linguistic Processing 115
  • Semantic Processing 118
  • Pragmatic Processing 124
  • Evolution of NLP and AI 126
  • Summary: Comparisons of AI and BI Language Comprehension 128

References 129

 

6    Listening in Language Acquisition                                              134

  • Overview: Listening in Language Acquisition 135
  • Listening in L1 Acquisition: Development of Neurological Processing 135
  • Listening in L1 Acquisition: Development of Linguistic Processing 137
    • Acquisition of Phonology 137
    • Acquisition of Lexical Comprehension 141
    • Acquisition of Syntax Comprehension 142

 

  • Listening in L1 Acquisition: Development of Semantic Processing 144
    • The Role of Interaction in Semantic Processing Development 145
  • Listening in L1 Acquisition: Development of Pragmatic Processing 147
  • Listening in L2 Acquisition: Development of Neurological Processing 149
  • Listening in L2 Acquisition: Development of Linguistic Processing 152
    • Development of L2 Phonological Processing 152
    • Development of L2 Syntactic Processing 153
    • Linguistic Processing: Lexis 155
  • Listening in L2 Acquisition: Development of Semantic Processing 156
  • Listening in L2 Acquisition: Development of Pragmatic Processing 157
  • Summary: The Transformative Nature of L1 and L2 Acquisition of Listening 158

References 160

 

SECTION II

Teaching Listening                                                                       169

7    Approaches to Teaching Listening                                               171

  • Overview: Integrating Ideas into Teaching Methodologies 171
  • Historical Approaches to Teaching Listening 172
  • The Cognitive Revolution 173
  • Theoretical Models for Teaching Listening 176
    • The Monitor Model 176
    • The Interaction Hypothesis 177
    • The Comprehensible Output Hypothesis 178
    • Sociocultural Theory 179
    • Metacognition Approaches 180
  • Profiling Approaches to Teaching Listening 182
    • Neurological Processing: Focus on Engaged Listening 182
    • Linguistic Processing: Focus on Attention to Bottom-Up Listening Skills 186
    • Semantic Processing: Focus on Critical Listening 189
    • Pragmatic Processing: Focus on Interactive Listening 193
  • Summary: Targeted and Balanced Approaches 195 References 196

 

8    Input and Interaction                                                                 204

  • Overview: Highlighting the Role of Input and Interaction 204
  • Engaging with Input 205
    • Interaction Points 206
  • Input Genres 207
  • Difficulty and Cognitive Load 215
  • Strategies for “Easifying” Input 218
    • Input Simplification 218
    • Presentation Scaffolding 219
    • Technology Mediation 220
  • Summary: Maximizing the Use of Input through Interaction 223 References 224

 

9    Designing Instruction                                                                230

  • Introduction: Teaching as Instructional Design 230
  • Instructional Design Stages 231
    • Stage 1: Needs Analysis 231
    • Stage 2: Defining Objectives 232
    • Stage 3: Content Selection 234
    • Stage 4: Task Sequencing 236
    • Stage 5: Technology Integration 237
    • Stage 6: Assessment and Feedback 238
  • Sample Instructional Designs 238
    • Design 1: Linguistic Processing Development 239
      • Linguistic Processing Activity 1: Dictation 239
      • Linguistic Processing Activity 2: Dictogloss 241
    • Design 2: Semantic Processing Development 243
      • Semantic Processing Activity 1: Selective

Listening 244

  • Semantic Processing Activity 2: Note-Taking 244
  • Design 3: Pragmatic Processing Development 249
    • Pragmatic Processing Activity 1: Collaborative

Conversation 249

  • Pragmatic Processing Activity 2: Probing

Conversation 250

  • Summary: Essentials of Instructional Design for Listening 254 References 256

 

10    Listening Assessment                                                                 258

  • Introduction: The Role of Assessment in Language Teaching 258
  • Identifying the Context for Assessment 259

 

  • The Concept of Validity in Assessment 259
    • Construct Validity 263
  • Describing Listening Proficiency 266
  • Formulating an Assessment Model 271
  • Content Validity 273
  • Composing Test Prompts 278
  • Portfolio Assessment 281
  • Assessing Interactive Listening Proficiency 282
  • Uses of AI in Testing Listening 285
  • Summary: Integrating Assessment into Instruction 287 References 287

 

SECTION III

Researching Listening                                                                  293

11    Researching Listening Processes                                                 295

  • Introduction: Why Research Listening Processes? 295
  • Identifying Listener Decisions 297
    • Project: Monitoring Listener Decisions in Interactive Tasks 300
    • Research and Teaching Options 302
  • Tracking Listener Judgments 302
    • Evaluating Speaker Impact 303
    • Project: Evaluating Speaker Presentations 304
    • Evaluating Speaker Comprehensibility 309
    • Project: Using Comprehensibility Scales 310
  • Interpreting Listener Filters 312
    • Project: Interpreting Recall Protocols 315
  • Analyzing Listener Misunderstandings 317
    • Project: Collecting and Analyzing Common Misunderstandings, Attributed to Processing Domains 317
  • Summary: The Value of Studying Listening Processes 321 References 322

 

12    Researching Listening Outcomes                                                326

  • Introduction: Posing Questions to Identify Variables 326
  • Input Variables 330
    • Input Source Variables 331
    • Input Genres 332
    • Discourse Types 332

 

  • Project: Making Input Choices 333
  • Intervention Variables 336
    • Project: Comparisons of Instructional Interventions 337
  • Interaction Variables 339
    • Project: Comparing Effects of Interaction Types 344
  • Assessment Variables 345
    • Project: Creating a Formative Assessment for Listening 345
  • Course Design Variables 346
  • Summary: Using Action Research to Enrich Teaching and Learning 351

References 351

 

SECTION IV

Resources                                                                                     355

Resources for Teaching Listening                                                      357

Input Sources 357

Children 357

Stories 357

Audio Books and Podcasts 358 Language Development Activities 358 Games and Apps 359

Music 359

Social Learning 360

Field Trips 360

Middle School/High School 360 Stories and News 360 Content Learning 361

University/Adult 362

Content-Based Listening 362 Discussions and Debates 363 Educational Podcasts 363

Cultural Stories 363

Conversation 364

News and Current Events 364 Practice Sources 365

VR Programs and Platforms 365 AR Programs and Platforms 365 Language-Learning Apps366

Chatbots for Practicing Listening 366 Practice Ideas from Polyglots 367

 

Resources for Researching Listening                                                 369

Guidelines for Conducting Qualitative Research 369 Guidelines for Conducting Quantitative Research 371

Quantitative Research Skills 371

Statistical Procedures for Conducting Research on Listening Tutorials in Applied Statistics 373

Guidelines for Conducting Mixed Methods Research 374

372
Glossary 376
Index 415

About The Author

, Teaching and Researching Listening: Contents, Lateral Communications
Michael Rost, principal author of Pearson English Interactive, has been active in the areas of language teaching, learning technology and language acquisition research for over 25 years. His interest in bilingualism and language education began in the Peace Corps in West Africa and was fuelled during his 10 years as an educator in Japan and extensive touring as a lecturer in East Asia and Latin America. Formerly on the faculty of the TESOL programs at Temple University and the University of California, Berkeley, Michael now works as an independent researcher, author, and speaker based in San Francisco.

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